Cotton Yarn Processes and Layouts
Current Position of the Textile Industry in Pakistan


This report starts by an overview of Textile industry in Pakistan.
Then it provides general information about Samira Fabric Private Limited, including its capacity, production rate, raw materials used, manpower involved etc., which includes processes used for production, machineries used for production, simple schematic description of those machines, power management of the factory etc. Other than these, there were many mechanical plants, for example: air conditioning plant, involved in assistance of the total production process. Information regarding those are tried to be given here. Some pictures taken during the visit is also included in the report for the shake of clarity. It is impossible to depict the whole details of the processes used in the factory, as the tour was only for one day duration.
In spite of some limitations, highest possible effort has been utilized, to provide a neat depiction of the total production process. Thanks must go to the course teacher Lecturer Khaleeq Sahib.

The Current Position of the Textile Industry in Pakistan

Textile industry is the dominant-manufacturing sector in Pakistan. It is based on locally available raw cotton. Textile production comprises of cotton, cotton yarn, cotton fabric, fabric processing (Grey-dyed-printed), home textiles, towels, hosiery & knitwear and readymade garments. The diagram below shows linkages between sub-sectors and the value addition process:
From almost non-existence at the time of creation of Pakistan in 1947, the Textile Industry has grown into the largest and most significant economic sector of Pakistan. The textile Industry of Pakistan now contributes to the national economy as follows:
  • 65% of total export of Pakistan
  • 46% of total manufacturing
  • 38% of total employment
  • 8.5 of total GDP
  • Rs 40 billion paid as wages per annum
  • Rs 4 billion paid as interest to banks per annum

Samira Fabric Private Limited become a truly professional organization, achieve higher quality standards, utilize maximum capacity, captures expansion opportunities and become a least cost operator amongst its competitors. We will strive to continue as a successful company, make profit and thus create value for our shareholders without high risk to them, our customers or employees.


The Mission of Samira Fabric Private Limited is to contribute positively to the socio-economic Growth of Pakistan through business and industrial pursuits endeavoring to achieve excellence in all spheres of such activity with effective and efficient management.


  • To gain market share by fulfilling the gap between supply and demand of cotton yarn
  • To continuously improve the quality.
  • To develop high employees commitment.
  • To develop competency in manufacturing.
  • To achieve annual targets through untiring efforts.
  • Achieving customer satisfaction through quality products.
  • To provide maximum quality with competitive price.
  • To use professional approach is all spheres of organization.
  • To become a diversified company operating internationally.
  • To setup a textile bleaching, dying, mercerizing, finishing and printing facility center at Faisalabad under the name and style Samira Fabric Private Limited.
  • To manufacture and process all sort of yarn and every kind of cloth (silken, woolen, cotton, mercerized and artificial silk).

Samira Fabric Pvt. Ltd. is situated at the city of Industries ‘FIASALABAD’ in the province of Punjab (Pakistan). The company was incorporated in Pakistan as a private company in 1973. The company was incorporated in Pakistan under the company ordinance, 1984. It was converted into public limited company in 1988. The register head office is located at Head office 55-P Gulberg Lahore. Its shares are quoted on all stock Exchanges of Pakistan. It is principally engaged in the manufacturing and sale of yarn. With an extreme penetrating the textile export market & now one of the leading export houses of Pakistan having an export turnover of over Rs. 1 billion.


The company is fully certified by ISO-9001-2000, ISO 140001, SA-8000 and Deko tax standard which shows its credibility in the international markets:

o Home;
                  Textile bed sheet, curtains, pillows, kitchen accessories
 o Hotel;
                   Bed sheets, linens, and towels dish cloth &cabinet towels, roles.
 o Services;
                  Wash clothes, dusters, hand towels, mats, and wipers

With branches in Faisalabad, shaikhupura Neshatabad, Samira Fabric is producing
Service departments

  • Accounts department
  • Electric department
  • Labor department
  • Security department
Technical departments
  • Spinning quality department
  • Maintenance department
  • Production department

Samira fabrics are a business concern of renowned Mono group. The Samira resources are raw material i-e yarn from their own business concern name vishal kamal fabric textile.
After the resources of raw material yarn the raw material is issue to sizing department where this has been formulated or weaving. Samira contains five latest sizing machine which covers requirement of its three units efficiently. After the preparation of beems weaving process starts.
Samira contains 351 looms including one ten shutlesless looms.41 latest muller looms and 200 auto looms-which ensure that the production with be completed as per the leading time given by the customer.
Weaving process is concerned by weaving.
Production managers and weaving masters which are responsible for the planning implementation and controlling of their concern department.
The beems are erected on the looms then the weaving of fabrics takes places.
The daily production of every loom is calculated and verified with the standard made by the authority of the company. After the completion of weaving the final products produced by weaving is grey fabrics which is issued to proceeding department for further process. Fabric is then treated with the sizing, bleaching, and dying, printing processing to formulate the final product as per customer requirement.

We are here only considering only the yarn production part of the factory.

Process Layout

                                                           Carded Process                          Combed
Process followed by the industry for manufacturing Yarn

Description of different Processes:

o There are four machines for blending, opening, and cleaning.
o The compressed mass of raw fiber is removed from the bales.
o Fine particles of metals are detected in the metal detector.
o Opening is necessary to lessen hard lumps of fiber & disentangle them
o Blending is necessary so as to obtain uniformity of the fiber.
o Removes trash such as dirt, leaves, burs & any remaining seeds
o Prepare the fiber for spinning into yarn
o Fibers of different staple length are mixed here.
o Mixing is mainly done to reduce the cost.
o Fibers come in six lanes then mixed by betting.
o Fine betting is done
o Waste product are separated
o Waste id not used but sold
o Initial process of arranging the fiber in a parallel fashion is known as carding, and is done on a carding machine.
o The lap is passed through a beater section and drawn on a rapidly revolving cylinder covered with very fine hooks or wire brushes.
o A moving belt of wire brushes slowly moves concentrically above this cylinder.
o As the cylinder rotates, the cotton is pulled by the cylinder through the small gap under the brushes.
o The teasing action removes the remaining trash, disentan-gles the fibers, and arranges them in a relatively parallel manner in the form of a thin web.
o This web is drawn through a funnel-shaped device that molds it into a round rope like mass called card sliver.


FINISHER DRAWING (auto leveling):

To measure the sliver thickness variations and then continuously to alter the draft accordingly so that more draft is applied to thick places, and less to thin places with the result that the sliver delivery is less irregular than it otherwise would have been.
Besides an improvement in production appearance, it also contribute to,

o Better productive efficiency
o Fewer end-breakage in subsequent processes
o Less waste, and
o Constant process conditions.
After several drawing operations the fiber passes through simplex and the output is roving.
  • Slight twist is given.
  • The diameter is reduced.
  • Gain some tensile strength

• Roving is fed in ring f rame and the output is yarn.

• Roving

• Draft

• Yarn


o The yarns are further winded on cone from the ring frame.

o Only the good quality product passes.


o To make the twist permanent steam is passed through the yarn.

o Moisture is absorbed in the yarn.

o During dyeing more uniform performance is achieved.

o The steam is supplied from yarn conditioning plant.


Finally the yarn is ready to export or weaving.


Combed process is different by two additional process, those are

a. Unilap

b. Comber


After carding the sliver is turned into lap form in unilap machine.


o Combed sliver produces a smoother & more even yarn.

o Short fiber called noils are combed out & completely separated from longer fibers.

o Operations eliminates as much as 25% of the original card sliver, thus almost ¼ of the raw cotton becomes waste.

o Produces consumer’s goods with better quality.

o A long staple yarn produces stronger, smoother, more serviceable fabrics.



The unit enjoys the facility of 125 Sulzer Looms,50 jakob Muller Looms And 500 conventional looms. Most of the machines are equipped with jacquards and dobbies.

Terry Weaving

Latest Sulzer Shuttleless looms have been added to up- grade and modernize the mill's terry production. The Looms are fully equipped with dobbies & jacquarettesfor weaving different designs, patterns, logo & inscriptions. Premium ranges, with increased weight per Square meter & anti- bacterial plus anti-fungal properties, have also been introduced


Our modern and versatile machinery range enables us to offer designs, shaded and finishes in accordance with the desires and requirements of our customers.

Yarn Dyeing

Latest, Fully Automatic & Computerized "Obermaier " Yarn Dyeing Plant.

With a modern color matching laboratory, Schlafhorst Auto- Coners, flexible raisin cone technology and a 20,000 liters per 8 hours tank / dryer capacity, the facility at present is the most modern and largest of its kind in the country.


The company has 350 stitching machines of Jaki & Singer with highly trained and professional staff. Quality is controlled & monitored right up to final packing and loading to ensure complete service to our customers.


Machinery Layout / Formation:

Sizing I shape

Printing I shape

Bleaching I shape                                    

Weaving H shape

Dying L shape

Stitching U shape